Diabetes Mellitus Dissertation Chapter Example


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Diabetes mellitus hinders the tendency of the human body to break down the carbohydrates into glucose and utilize it, which eventually increases the amount of glucose in blood and incorporates severe damage to the nervous system and other body organs. The increasing number of individuals suffering from diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia is threatening, as is it estimated that the prevalence of diabetes in the Saudi Arabian region will become 334 million. Similarly, the prevalence of obesity is also observed to be increasing due to the change in lifestyle and incorporates the health related issues, mainly comprising of ischemic heart disease, stroke, hypertension and osteoarthritis. It is observed that the life style in the Saudi Arabia exerts less physical exertion among its citizens, due to which the prevalence of obesity has been increasing and hence, the occurrence of chronic diseases is expected.

The study conducted in this respect incorporated the case-control study in Saudi Arabia and the results of the study indicated the prevalence of diabetes among the Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Group. Moreover, the participants who represented the prevalence of T2DM had the higher body mass index and waist circumference, which eventually indicates the prevalence of obesity among the group. Therefore, the result provides the empirical understanding about the prevalence of T2DM among the overweight individuals and hence, it is implied that the change in lifestyle has caused the occurrence of diabetes mellitus by means of incorporating the obesity.

Moreover, the individuals diagnosed with T2DM also indicated the family history of diabetes mellitus, which eventually indicates the unhealthy eating habits deriving from the family. In this instance, it is implied that the participants observed with the T2DM are highly inclined towards unhealthy food and lack an adequate level of physical activity. In this manner, the study provides the direction towards the implication, in which the adequate physical activities are required to be conducted by the individuals in order to maintain and hinder the occurrence of T2DM.

The frequency of the Del/Ins was observed to be among 34.9% participants, whereas 58.6% participants were observed with the Del/Del genotype and 6.6% participants indicated the Ins/Ins genotype. In this instance, it is implied that the lack of occurrence of genotype indicating the UCP2 was moderately high among the participants. The UCP2 gene plays a prominent role in the occurrence of obesity, which eventually leads towards the occurrence of chronic diseases among the carriers of UCP2 gene. Moreover, UCP2 gene also supports the effective secretion of insulin which eventually helps in the metabolic activity and causes the consumption of glucose in an effective manner.

The prevalence of UCP2 gene helps in the identification of the glucose consumption and ATP/ADP proportion. It supports the secretion of insulin due to which glucose is processed in the body and hence, the blood glucose level is maintained. It is observed that 58.6% of the participants had the Del/Del UCP2 genotype and considering the number of diagnosed cases of T2DM, it is evident that the UCP2 is a significant factor in maintaining the level of glucose.

The observed frequencies of genotype were compared with the expected frequencies in accordance with the Hardy – Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE). The HWE law helps in determining the consistency in the prevalence of alleles from generation to generation. The results from the chi-square test indicated the positive association between the prevailing and expected values. It indicates that the UCP2 genotype is considered to be consistent throughout the generations. Therefore, it is depicted that the individuals will possess the genetic tendency to regulate insulin in an effective manner. The results evidently indicate that the genotypes have reached the Hardy – Weinberg Equilibrium and hence, the genotype is expected to prevail over a period of time apart from the evolutionary influences.

Further results of the study were aimed to determine the association between UCP-2 and occurrence of Diabetes Mellitus Type II. In this instance, the association between UCP-2 and T2DM was not observed and the result was found to be significant. It implies that T2DM is not genetically formed and is highly dependent on the life style and activity level of the individuals. In this manner, it is incorporated that UCP-2 might be significant in regulating insulin as part of biological mechanism and can provide resistance towards T2DM, however, it is not related to the occurrence of T2DM empirically.

The results depicting the association between UCP-2 and obesity indicated the prevalence of no association between these variables. The results were significant throughout the groups of participants, which eventually indicates the consistency of the results. It eventually indicates that UCP-2 does not incorporate the irregular accumulation of fats in the body and hence, it is not an antecedent of obesity. In this manner, it is implied that the function of UCP is reliant on maintaining the glucose level in blood and does not comprehends any relation with T2DM. Therefore, obesity is found to be developed on the basis of any other factors rather than any genetic prevalence.

The overall results of the study are observed to be in accordance with the extensive literature discussed in the study. It is implied that the increasing rate of obesity in the Saudi Arabia has made the population prone towards the diabetes mellitus, which eventually increases the occurrence of cardiac, nervous, hemostasis and other chronic diseases. Moreover, the predicted threat of chronic diseases requires the considerate level of attention from the concerned authorities and healthcare organizations in the Saudi Arabia.

The current research has provided the basic understanding about the prevalence and antecedents of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and it has been empirically proved that genetic tendencies do not play any role in the occurrence of T2DM. In this instance, it is observed that the increasing BMI been playing a significant role in the development of T2DM among the individuals. It is considered to be the antecedent of inadequate and unhealthy lifestyle, consumption of unnecessary calories and lack of indulgence in the physical activities.

The results of the study has provided with a directive means towards the implications, in which it is observed that T2DM is not dependent on genotype structure and hence, it can be prevented in an effective manner. Similarly, the prevalence of obesity is also not observed to be reliant on any genetic prevalence, which also indicates the possibility for preventive measures. The prevalence of obesity can be determined by the effective means of BMI, which can determine the individuals who are at the risk of developing T2DM. It is highly required that national programs are formulated in order to incorporate the state-wide intervention to address the occurrence of obesity in the Saudi Arabia.

The effective development and implementation of the nation-wide programs will help in increasing the knowledge about the obesity and its antecedents, due to which the individuals in the society will become highly inclined towards enhancing the quality of their lifestyle. It is also essential that the state-wide programs incorporate the educational workshops in order to promote the maintenance of balanced diet, weight control and physical activity in the daily activities of the individuals.

It is implied that the rapid increase in diabetic level is estimated to be prevailing till the year 2025, which eventually indicates that the young-adults in the Saudi Arabia are highly prone towards obesity and T2DM. In this manner, it is suggested that the nation-wide awareness programs should ensure that their educational program addresses the individuals from this age bracket in an effective manner. It is also essential that the early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is incorporated in the country so that early identification can ensure the occurrence of early treatment among such individuals. It is also a crucial factor that the current population with diabetes mellitus is prone towards the occurrence of other chronic diseases as a consequence of inadequate blood glucose level.

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder that effects the quality of life by effecting the body mechanisms, which can cause cardiac failures, hemodialysis, blindness and other mobility issues. The occurrence of diabetes mellitus is observed to be increasing in accordance with the aging of the population, which eventually indicates the high prevalence of possible chronic diseases that are associated with diabetes mellitus. In Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is observed to be high and its increasing trend has been observed higher in the urban areas. Moreover, the increasing rate of obesity has also been observed, which is highly related with the inadequate lifestyle and lack of physical activities.

In this manner, it is suggested that the nation-wide educational programs will help such individuals by means of providing them with the adequate knowledge about maintaining their daily life activities. It will also help in increasing their inclination towards the consumption of balanced diet, which will eventually make them resistant towards the occurrence of chronic diseases. It will enhance the quality of life of the individuals who already have diabetes and are at the risk of developing chronic diseases.

The increasing trend of diabetes in the Saudi Arabia incorporates the necessity of such reformative programs because the occurrence of diabetes is observed to be the antecedent of the modern lifestyle, in which physical exertion has been decreased and consumption of junk food has been increased. In this manner, it is considered as a high time to provide educational reform in the Saudi society so that the occurrence of chronic diseases can be decreased by means of enhancing the quality of life. The current study has provided the empirical evidence that indicates that the occurrence of T2DM is a consequence of poor quality of life rather than the prevalence of specific genotypes.


In this manner, the increasing rate of diabetes mellitus is observed to be associated with the increasing rate of obesity and inadequate lifestyle. The current study provides the empirical evidence, in which obesity is considered to be the antecedent of BMI, which eventually relates to the T2DM. However, the genetic prevalence of is not observed to be associated with the occurrence of T2DM. In this manner, the study provides the significant and consistent results that indicate the occurrence of T2DM as a consequence of obesity. Moreover, BMI is found to be a significant indicator of obesity and can provide direction towards the identification of the individuals who are at the risk of developing T2DM. The current study has provided the empirical evidence, however, the current study addressed the sample size obtained from only one province of the Saudi Arabia. Therefore, it is suggested that the future research can enhance the dimension of the sample size and can address other regions of Saudi Arabia in order to understand the prevalence of T2DM in an effective manner. The practical implications in accordance with the results of the study indicate that the nation-wide educational program is required to be executed in order to identify the individuals who have diabetes mellitus and the individuals who are at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The educational programs can provide awareness about maintaining the healthy lifestyle which can hinder the future occurrence of diabetes mellitus and can improve the quality of life in an effective manner.

19 April, 2023

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